SAE 1018 Chemical Composition

AISI 1018 material

SAE 1018 Chemical Composition

SAE 1018 chemical composition

The carbon content of SAE 1018 is in the range of 0.15-0.20% and this comparatively low carbon amount makes it a mild steel.

0.05 Max
0.04 Max
98.8 to 99.25

AISI 1018 equivalent material

P265NL C18 1.0405 080A15 / 080A17 SAE 1018

See how Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Steel 1018 are different for Hot rolled and Cold drawn material

As you can see, the mechanical properties of hot rolled and cold processes of 1018 carbon are different from each other and one can tolerate up to a certain temperature only. So according to your application you should decide the process of drawing will be preferable for your product of applications.

Knowing the differences between will help you to choose the best project.

Steel 1018 mechanical properties (For Round Bars)

Steel (UNS) Tensile strength (Mpa) Elongation in 50 mm, % Yield strength (Mpa) Hardness (HB) Reduction in area, % Processing, condition or treatment Sample Diameter (mm)
AISI 1018 (G10180) 483 18 413 143 40 Cold drawn 16-22
440 15 370 125 40 Cold drawn 20-32
414 15 345 120 35 Cold drawn 32-51
400 25 220 115 50 Hot rolled (steel bar) 20-32

Cold-drawn mechanical properties of UNS G10180 material

Size in MM R Rp 0.2 A Z reduct. HB M. elasticity
  N/mm2 N/mm2 % %   GPa
76 x 32 581 556 13.4 60.7 176 253
76 x 32 553 438 17.6 60.8 162 251
76 x 32 530 384 27.2 59.0 159 186

Hot-rolled mechanical properties of 1018 steel

Size in MM R Rp 0.2 A Z reduct. HB
  N/mm2 N/mm2 % % GPa
22 634 386 27 48 > 197

DIN 1.0405 has good toughness and ductility, View Thermal Properties of AISI 1018 material

Heating metal increases it volume, length and even its surface and when the metal is been heated it removes atoms from their original position which changes the structure. This process is known as thermal expansion and the ratio of growth depends upon the metal. Hence you should heat AISI 1018 material in its appropriate range only otherwise the resulted product can burst.

Thermal properties of P265NL grade

Property Value
Coefficient of thermal expansion 1.32E-5 1/K
Melting point 1289 – 1478 °C
Specific heat capacity 486 J/(kg·K)
Thermal conductivity 36 W/(m·K)

Machining provides C18 steel fine finish, Check Specific Heat of 1018 cold rolled steel

It can be easily machined as it is soft and can even be shaped, crimped and bent. Therefore the heating temperature should not exceed beyond the melting point which can demolish the material. Which could delay the manufacturing of your product and even waste your expense till now what you have been putting on it.

Specific Heat of 1018 steel material

Value (J/Kg·K) Temperature (°C) Treatment or condition
486 50-100 Annealed
519 150-200
599 350-400

1018 cold rolled steel Electrical Resistivity

Value (μΩ·m) Temperature (°C) Treatment or condition
0.16 0 Annealed
0.22 100
0.29 200

AISI 1010 vs 1018 Steel

AISI 1010 AISI 1018
Good formability and weldability More robust and durable
Yield strength: 305 MPa Yield Strength: 370 MPa

A36 vs Steel 1018 Comparison

A36 1018
Carbon content 0.25 – 0.29% 0.15 – 0.20%
Machinability 70% machinable 72% machinable
Corrosion resistant Moderate corrosion resistance Higher corrosion resistance compared to Steel A36
Cost It is cheaper It is expensive compared to Steel A36

Heat treatment for SAE 1018 Case Hardening

Hot-forming Normalizing
Soft annealing
Pre-heating welding PWHT
1180-900 °C 920 °C
650-700 °C
furnace cooling
550-620 °C
880-900 °C oil polymer
or water
not required slow cooling
P265NL grade tempered between 150°C – 200°C, Refer Carburizing Treatment of 1018 steel material

Carburizing treatment is utilise for bending, crimping and swaging techniques which is extensively used for fixtures, mounting plates and spacers. It enhances drilling, machining, threading and punching process which prevents cracks in severe bends. Hence, it is essential to avert the bends which can crack or break your material.

Carburizing Treatment of AISI 1018 Steel

Grade Case depth (mm) Temperature (°C) Weight (kg) Hardness (HRC) Quench Time (h) Typical applications
1018 0.38 925 0.5-2.0 50-60 Brine 0.5-1.0 Production tools

SAE grade 1018 Carbonitriding

Grade Case depth (mm) Time in furnace Furnace temperature (°C) Applications Quench
1018 0.40-0.50 2 h 870 Sliding spur gear, 67 mm outside diameter Oil at 150 °C (300 °F); tempered at 150 °C (300 °F); for 1 h.
Spur pinion shaft, 41mm outside diameter Oil at 150 °C (300 °F); tempered at 260 °C (500 °F) for 1 h.

DIN 1.0405 Density

Density 7.87 g/cm3

SAE 1018 Hardness in hrc and hrb

Hardness HRC 58
Hardness (HRC) HRB 131

Steel 1018 Machinability

The machinability of AISI 1018 is rated at 62%

1018 Hot Rolled Steel Max service temperature

Max service temperature 500 °C

ASTM Standards of SAE 1018

Hot rolled ASTM A576-17
Cold drawn ASTM A311/A311M: 2004
ASTM Standard

Corrosion Resistance of C18 steel

Pitting Corrosion Resistance Moderate resistance
Crevice Corrosion Resistance Very susceptible to it
Intergranular Corrosion Resistance If exposed to high temperatures then its prone to intergranular corrosion
Know about Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing which required to detect Internal/ Surface defect of 1018 Carbon Steel

Destructive Testing are usually done by in-house technical person or by testing service provider. These test are done in lab by using specialised tools or equipment’s. It is the testing which analyses the point at which a material fails.

The inspector examines the material by using different destructive methods of testing.

Non-Destructive Testing refers to an array of inspection methods which helps the inspectors to rate and collect the data of material, system or element without permanently altering it.

The inspector uses various non-destructive testing for collection of various types of data and each needs its specific tools, training and preparation to test the material.

It should be clear that the person wants which type of testing to analyze the properties then only it can give you the resultant answer of it.

Testing method for SAE 1018 Steel

Non-Destructive Testing Methods

  • Visual Inspection
  • Ultrasonic Testing
  • Magnetic Particle Testing
  • Eddy-Current Testing

Destructive Testing Methods

  • Tensile Testing
  • Impact Testing
  • Metallography
  • Hardness Testing

Specialized Testing Methods

  • Spectroscopy
  • Chemical Analysis
  • Electrical Conductivity
  • Microstructure Analysis
SAE 1018 material testing

Chemical compatibility of UNS G10180

Media Symbol Compatibility
Acid, Acetic and Propionic Acid Icon ACCEPTABLE
Carbon Dioxide (Dry) Carbon Dioxide (Dry) ACCEPTABLE
Chlorinated Solvents (Wet) Chlorinated Solvents (Wet) ACCEPTABLE
Acid, Hydrofluosilicic Acid Icon NOT AVAILABLE
Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric NOT AVAILABLE
Allyl Alcohol Allyl Alcohol QUESTIONABLE
Acetaldehyde Acetaldehyde NOT RECOMMENDED

Welding of DIN 1.0401

Thickness ≤50mm (2 in.) preheat and interpass temperature is above -12 °C
50< t ≤100 preheat and interpass temperature is 38 °C (for low hydrogen); and 121 °C (for other than low hydrogen)

Poissons Ratio and Shear Modulus of S15C material

Poissons Ratio 0.29
Shear Modulus 78.0 GPa

Comparison of 1018 VS 1020 steel

Properties 1018 1020
Carbon, C 0.18% 0.20%
Tensile Strength 64,000 psi 61,000 psi
Hardness 126 121

Stress Relieving of WNR 1.0401

Stress Relieving between 780°C – 820°C

Characteristics of 1018 Steel

  • Good Weldability
  • Ductility
  • Moderate Strength
  • Low Carbon Content
  • Cost Efficiency
  • Excellent Machinability

Advantages and disadvantages of AISI 1018 carbon steel


  • Can be easily welded which makes it suitable for fabrication processes
  • Enhanced wear resistance when carburized
  • It has good balance of strength, toughness, and ductility


  • Exhibit limited wear resistance in demanding applications
  • Highly susceptible to corrosion due to low alloy content
  • Have relatively low tensile and yield strength compared to other steel