What is Pipe Fittings?
Pipe Fittings is the occupation of installing or repairing piping or tubing systems that convey liquid, gas & occasionally solid materials. It is a component of piping that helps to change the direction of the flow such as tees, elbows. It works with a variety of pipe & tubing materials including several types of steel such as copper, iron, aluminium
There are different types of pipe fitting used in piping are Elbow, Tee, Reducer, Union, Coupling, Cross, Cap, Swage Nipple, Plug, Adapters, Olets (Sockolet, Weldolet, Thredolet, Nipolet, Elbowlet, Thredolet, Swepolet, Letrolet)
It is frequently used than any other pipe fittings. It has flexibility which help to change the pipe direction. There are two standard types elbow called 90º Elbow & 45º Elbow. And it is available in two radius i.e Short Radius(1D) & Long Radius(1.5D)
90 Degree Elbow
It is installed between the pipe to change the direction of pipe by 90 Degree.
45 Degree Elbow
It is installed between the pipe to change the direction of pipe by 45 Degree.
Long Radius Elbow
In long radius elbow center line radius is 1.5 times the nominal size of the pipe. Mostly long radius elbows are used in piping because pressure loss is less as compared to short radius elbow.
Short Radius Elbow
In short radius elbow center line radius is same as the nominal size of the pipe. It is used under limited applications. However it has a high pressure drop due to the sudden change in the direction of flow.
It is designed to change the direction as well as to reduce the pipe size within a piping system. The reducing elbow eliminates one pipe fitting & reduces the welding by more than one third. Also the gradual reduction in diameter throughout the arc of the reducing elbow provides lower resistance to flow & reduces the effect of stream turbulence & potential internal erosion. These feature prevent sizeable pressure drops in the line.
Long radius pipeline bends is used in fluid transportation line which require pigging. And due to their long radius & smooth change of direction it has very less pressure drop & smooth flow of fluid.
Miter bends is not standard pipe fittings they are fabricated from pipes. They are preferred for size 10″ an above because large size elbow is expensive. Use of miter bend is restricted to the low pressure water line. It can be fabricated in 2, 3, & 5 pieces.
Returns – 180 Degree Elbow
It is used to make 180º change in direction. Available in short & long pattern. It is used in heat exchanger, heating coil etc.
It is used for distributing the fluid from the run pipe. It is a short piece of pipe with a 90 Degree Branch at center. There are two types of Tee used in piping i.e Equal Tee & Unequal Tee.
The diameter of the branch is same as the diameter of the Run in straight tee.
The diameter of the branch size is smaller than the diameter of the Run Pipe.
Barred tee is also known as a scrapper tee & it is used in pipelines that are pigged. The branch of the tee has a restriction bar welded internally to prevent the scrapper to enter the branch. The bars are welded in the branch in a way that it will allow restriction free passage of the scrapper from the run pipe.
Lateral Tee has a branch at 45º & 90º angle. It allows one pipe to join another pipe at 45º angle. This type of tee reduces friction that could hamper the flow. Lateral tee is also known as Wye tee.
It is also known as four way pipe fittings. It has one inlet & three outlet. Generally, it is not used in process piping to transport fluid. But forged crosses are commonly in the fire water sprinkler line.
It helps to change the sizes of the pipe. There are two types of reducer Concentric Pipe Reducer & Eccentric Pipe Reducer.
Concentric Pipe Reducer
It is also known as conical reducer. In concentric reducer, the center of both the ends is on the same axis. It is useful when the center lines of the larger & smaller pipes has to be maintained same.
In eccentric reducer the center of both the ends is on different axis. It is useful when outside surfaces of the pipeline is to maintained same.
It is small reducer which is used to connect pipes to smaller screwed or socket welded pipes. Swage reducer is also available in concentric & eccentric type.
The cap covers the end of a pipe. It is used at the edge end of the piping system. It is also used in piping headers for future connections.
In this type of flange the stub is butt welded to the pipe, whereas flange is freely moved over the stub end. It is used with lap joint flange. It is a flange part but covered under ASME B16.9 & that is why it is considered as pipe fittings.
It is used as an alternative to flanges connection in low pressure small bore piping where dismantling of the pipe is required more often. Union has threaded end or socket weld end. There are three parts in union i.e, nut, female end & male end. When the female & male ends are joined, the nuts provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint.
It is used for connect pipe to pipe or pipe to swage or nipple. It has threaded or socket ends & it is used for connecting small bore pipes.
It is used for small bore branching from a vessel or large pipe. It has socket or threaded end on only one side.
It is used to connect two different sizes of pipe. It is like concentric reducer that maintain a center line of the pipe but small in size.
It is a short stub of pipe which has a male pipe thread at both the end or at one end. Nipples are used for connecting pipe, valves & hoses. It is used for connecting two fittings in low pressure piping.
Socket Weld Elbow
It has face to face dimension & are typically used in tight areas where clearances are an issue. It is generally used for changing the direction in piping.
Socket Weld Tee
It allows a line to split into two lines with a connection that is at 90 Deg angle. It can also be used to connect two lines into one main line when mixing chemicals.
Socket Weld Cross
It is type of pipe fittings which is a defined as a part used in a piping system. It is useful for applications such as water works, shipbuilding industry, petrochemical industry, power industry, valve industry & general pipe connecting projects etc.
Threaded Pipe Fittings
Threaded pipe fittings is probably represent the oldest method of joining piping systems. Threaded fittings are mainly used for small pipe diameters & generally for pipes whose nominal diameter is NPS 2 or smaller than that. Threaded fitting is made of bronze, forged alloy & carbon steel. And it is available in three pressure ratings i.e class 2000, 3000 & 6000. Threaded pipe fitting is commonly used because of its low cost & noncritical applications such as domestic water, fire protection & industrial cooling water systems.
Different Qualities of Pipe Fittings
Stainless Steel Fittings
Stainless Steel Fitting Grades
ASTM A403 WP 304 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 304L Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 304H Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 310 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 316 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 316L Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 317 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 317L Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 321 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 321H Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 347 Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 347H Stainless Steel Fitting, ASTM A403 WP 904L Stainless Steel Fitting.
Stainless Steel Buttweld Fittings
Stainless Steel Long Radius Elbow, Stainless Steel Short Radius Elbow, Stainless Steel Reducing Elbow, Stainless Steel Equal Tee, Stainless Steel Reducing Tee, Stainless Steel Concentric Reducers, Stainless Steel Eccentric Reducers, Stainless Steel Stub Ends, Stainless Steel Cross, Stainless Steel Long Radius Return Bends, Stainless Steel Short Radius Return Bends, Stainless Steel 3D Elbow, Stainless Steel 5D Elbow, Stainless Steel Coupling, Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples, Stainless Steel End Caps.
Stainless Steel Socket Weld Fittings
Stainless Steel Elbow, Stainless Steel Tee, Stainless Steel Cross Tee, Stainless Steel Union, Stainless Steel Weldolet, Stainless Steel Sockolet, Stainless Steel Threadolet, Stainless Steel Elbolet, Stainless Steel Olet, Stainless Steel Nippolet, Stainless Steel Coupling, Stainless Steel Cap.
Carbon Steel Fittings
Carbon Steel Fittings Grade
ASTM A234 WPB, ASTM A420 WPL3, ASTM A420 WPL6, MSS – SP – 75 WPHY 42/46/52/56/60/65/70.
Carbon Steel Buttweld Fittings
Carbon Steel Long Radius Elbow, Carbon Steel Short Radius Elbow, Carbon Steel Reducing Elbow, Carbon Steel Equal Tee, Carbon Steel Reducing Tee, Carbon Steel Concentric Reducers, Carbon Steel Eccentric Reducers, Carbon Steel Stub Ends, Carbon Steel Cross, Carbon Steel Long Radius Return Bends, Carbon Steel Short Radius Return Bends, Carbon Steel 3D Elbow, Carbon Steel 5D Elbow, Carbon Steel Coupling, Carbon Steel Pipe Nipples, Carbon Steel End Caps.
Carbon Steel Socketweld Fittings
Carbon Steel Elbow, Carbon Steel Tee, Carbon Steel Cross Tee, Carbon Steel Union, Carbon Steel Weldolet, Carbon Steel Sockolet, Carbon Steel Threadolet, Carbon Steel Elbolet, Carbon Steel Olet, Carbon Steel Nippolet, Carbon Steel Coupling, Carbon Steel Cap.
Alloy Steel Fittings
Alloy Steel Fitting Grades
ASTM A234 WP5, ASTM A234 WP9, ASTM A234 WP11, ASTM A234 WP12, ASTM A234 WP21, ASTM A234 WP22, ASTM A234 WP91, ASTM A182 F5, ASTM A182 F9, ASTM A182 F11, ASTM A182 F12, ASTM A182 F21, ASTM A182 F22, ASTM A182 F91.
Alloy Steel Buttweld Fittings
Alloy Steel Long Radius Elbow, Alloy Steel Short Radius Elbow, Alloy Steel Reducing Elbow, Alloy Steel Equal Tee, Alloy Steel Reducing Tee, Alloy Steel Concentric Reducers, Alloy Steel Eccentric Reducers, Alloy Steel Stub Ends, Alloy Steel Cross, Alloy Steel Long Radius Return Bends, Alloy Steel Short Radius Return Bends, Alloy Steel 3D Elbow, Alloy Steel 5D Elbow, Alloy Steel Coupling, Alloy Steel Pipe Nipples, Alloy Steel End Caps
Alloy Steel Socketweld Fittings
Alloy Steel Elbow, Alloy Steel Tee, Alloy Steel Cross Tee, Alloy Steel Union, Alloy Steel Weldolet, Alloy Steel Sockolet, Alloy Steel Threadolet, Alloy Steel Elbolet, Alloy Steel Olet, Alloy Steel Nippolet, Alloy Steel Coupling, Alloy Steel Cap
Duplex Steel Fittings
Duplex Steel Fitting Grades
UNS S31803, UNS S32205, UNS S32550, UNS S32750, UNS S32760
Duplex Steel Buttweld Fittings
Duplex Steel Long Radius Elbow, Duplex Steel Short Radius Elbow, Duplex Steel Reducing Elbow, Duplex Steel Equal Tee, Duplex Steel Reducing Tee, Duplex Steel Concentric Reducers, Duplex Steel Eccentric Reducers, Duplex Steel Stub Ends, Duplex Steel Cross, Duplex Steel Long Radius Return Bends, Duplex Steel Short Radius Return Bends, Duplex Steel 3D Elbow, Duplex Steel 5D Elbow, Duplex Steel Coupling, Duplex Steel Pipe Nipples, Duplex Steel End Caps
Duplex Steel Socket Weld Fittings
Duplex Steel Elbow, Duplex Steel Tee, Duplex Steel Cross Tee, Duplex Steel Union, Duplex Steel Weldolet, Duplex Steel Sockolet, Duplex Steel Threadolet, Duplex Steel Elbolet, Duplex Steel Olet, Duplex Steel Nippolet, Duplex Steel Coupling, Duplex Steel Cap
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