Aluminum is the most abundant metal and it’s the third most common element which consist 8% of the earth crust. After steel, Aluminum is the most versatile metal which is widely used.
A layer of Aluminum oxide is formed almost instantaneously on the surface of Aluminum, when it is exposed to air. And this layer has excellent corrosion to resistant. It is less resistant to alkalis but fairly resistant to most acids.
Aluminum density is around one third of the steel and copper, which makes it one of the largest commercially available metals.
It is an important structural material which allows an increased payloads or fuel savings for transport industries in particular due to its high strength to weight ratio.
Aluminum does not have high tensile strength but by the addition of alloying materials such as copper, manganese, silicon and magnesium can increase the strength of aluminum and it can produce the properties which can be suitable to a particular applications.
Aluminum has advantage over steel because with decreasing temperature while retaining its toughness the tensile strength increases. On the other hand steel become brittle at low temperature.
It has an electrical conductivity which is high enough for use as an electrical conductor.
The conductivity of the usually used conducting alloy is merely around 62% of annealed copper, it’s just one third weight and can therefore conduct double as much electricity when compared with copper of the similar weight.
Aluminum is an excellent reflector of radiant energy, from infra-red to UV. The properties of Aluminum reflectivity create ideal as an insulating material to guard against the sun’s rays in summer, whereas insulating against heat loss in winter.
As compared to steel the thermal conductivity of Aluminum is about three times greater. Aluminum is therefore important for both cooling and heating application.
Alloy 1100 is the purest grade of aluminum alloy which is commercially available. It is a non-heat treatable, soft and low strength alloy that provides strong corrosion resistance. Aluminum Alloy 1100 is composed of 99% of Aluminum and 0.12% of copper. It provides excellent machinability as well as maintains strength in electrical conductivity and low temperatures.
Alloy 2011 is known for mechanical properties and for free-machining characteristics. It is popular age-hardenable alloy. While maintaining a smooth and bright finish it can be machined to very close tolerances. It does not offer weldability or good corrosion resistance.
Alloy 2014 is an excellent option for strength, machinability and welding capabilities. It is a precipitation hardening alloy that maintains strength after heat treatment, followed by a water quench which should be performed at 935°F. It can be machined best in the annealed condition.
Alloy 2017 is offers good machinability, decent strength and ductility due to its heat treatable wrought alloy. It has fair workability and corrosion resistance and offers more strength than Aluminum 2011. Like many aluminum alloys, Aluminum 2017 should not be welded as it reduces the alloy’s corrosion resistance.
Alloy 2024 is one of the most commonly used high strength aluminum alloys. It is commonly used where a good strength-to-weight ratio is required due to its combination of excellent fatigue resistance and high strength. It can be machined to a high finish and it can be formed in the annealed condition with resulting heat treating. The corrosion resistance of Aluminum Alloy 2024 is relatively low. And if this is a problem, 2024 is usually used in an anodized finish or in clad form known as Alclad.
Alloy 2219 is well-known for its excellent structural strength. It is an age-hardenable alloy is produced with a copper additive. Aluminum Alloy 2219 is useful for numerous high temperature applications. It is appropriate alloy for many metalworking processes including heat treatment, machining, forming, cold working, and more.
Alloy 3003 offers moderate strength and very good atmospheric corrosion resistance. Though it is not heat treatable, it offers good machinability for aluminum alloys.
Unlike other aluminum alloys, Aluminum 3003 alloy can be welded by using conventional welding methods.
Alloy 5005 has low density and excellent thermal conductivity, it is a lean aluminum magnesium alloy. In alkaline marine situations this medium strength non-heat-treatable alloy is known for its corrosion resistance.
Alloy 5052 provide excellent finishing qualities it is a non-heat treatable alloy. than most aluminum alloys Aluminum 5052 offers better corrosion resistance, especially to marine atmospheres and salt water. By using most common techniques 5052 alloy can be readily welded. It provides some of the best welding characteristics of all aluminum alloys.
Alloy 5086 provides high electrical conductivity and strong corrosion resistance, it is a structural alloy. As compared to Aluminum 5052 and 5083 it offers higher strength levels. Aluminum 5086 becomes stronger with cold operating and stain hardening, all whereas remaining a cost-effective choice.
Alloy 5657 is a non-heat treatable alloy that provides medium strength and workability. It provides enhanced corrosion resistance, due to the addition of magnesium to the alloy. It can be welded by using most convention methods such as gas torch, resistance welding and arc.
Alloy 6005A can be used for various applications it is a versatile alloy. As a moderate strength aluminum alloy, 6005A-T61 temper has mechanical property levels similar to 6005-T5, 6105-T5 and 6061-T6. Due to a difference in manganese and chromium content 6005A should not be confused with 6005. It offers good finishing and corrosion resistance characteristics for paint or anodizing.
Alloy 6013 is a wrought alloy that provides excellent compressive properties and high strength. The corrosion resistance and formability of it is also outstanding. Aluminum 6013 weldability and stress cracking resistance is age hardenable and highly rated.
Alloy 6020 is a wrought alloy that provides good joining characteristics. It has excellent machinability and corrosion resistance which responds well to anodizing. Aluminum 6262 it often replaces in situations where higher levels of environmental safety are critical due to Aluminum 6020 is lead-free.
Alloy 6060 is a moderate strength heat treatable alloy with a slightly lower strength than 6005A and better extrudeability than 6063. It has very good corrosion resistance and weldability and especially in temper T4a it provided good cold formability. It is has very good anodizing response and is commonly used for very complex cross sections.
It is the most versatile heat-treatable aluminum alloys. It provide a great range of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. By using common techniques it can be fabricated and it has good workability in the annealed condition. It can be furnace brazed and can be welded by all methods. Hence it is used in a wide variety of applications and products where better corrosion resistance with good strength and appearance are required.
It is commonly known as an architectural alloy. It has high degree of resistance to corrosion, high tensile and excellent finishing characteristics. It is most often found in interior and exterior architectural applications. It is very well appropriate for anodizing applications.
This provides good corrosion resistance, weldability and formability. 6101 It can be both hot and cold worked, unlike other aluminum alloy. It offers high electrical conductivity and good mechanical strength. Aluminum 6101 can be form, machine and weld by using standard methods and can be easily extruded.
Grade 6105 is a similar to aluminum 6061 except it consist higher amounts of silicon and it is a medium strength alloy. The high amount of silicon can cause properties to increase more rapidly with natural aging than typically experienced with aluminum 6063 and 6061.
Alloy 6262 is known for free-machining alloy it provides outstanding corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. Due to the addition of bismuth it can be easily machinable and can heat treatable. The levels of corrosion resistance is raised by anodizing raises and with high-speed tooling you can achieve a smooth finish. Its welding can be achieved through resistance methods, gas and arc. Aluminum 6262 most common tempers are T6 and T9.
Al 7050 has very high fracture toughness and mechanical properties it is a heat treatable alloy. At subzero temperatures aluminum 7050 provides high strength, good stress and corrosion cracking resistance. It has 40% of copper electrical conductivity and it is available in two tempers T7451 and T7651. Aluminum 7050 welding should be avoided as the process weakens the alloy.
This provides good stress-corrosion cracking resistance it is a high-strength alloy. Since it was introduced it is known as a pillar in aerospace industry. It brings excellent strength-to-weight ratio and moderate toughness. The resistance welding is preferred, when it comes to welding, gas and arc welding should be avoided. Aluminum 7075 increases its strength at sub-zero temperatures.
This is a primary alloying elements which consist of copper and magnesium. It provides uncompromising strength and accommodates a number of different metalworking processes. And these processes include welding, heat treating and machining. Aluminum 7178 provides good machinability and also responds well to resistance welding, when it is annealed. After this treatment it gains precipitation hardening which improves its mechanical properties. It is preferred for many applications in marine, aerospace and construction industries.
It is been procured from Aluminum 7075 that offers excellent toughness for a wide variety of applications. Aluminum 7475 alloy offers several metalworking options that include heat treating, machining and forming. In the annealed condition aluminum alloy 7475 functions best, for machining and it should be used with oil-based lubricants. It also works well for conventional cold working. If the alloy is warmed to 250°F operations such as spinning are possible.